accelerate: To experience a change in velocity (speed).

Antarctica: A continent mostly covered in ice, which sits in the southernmost part of the world.

Arctic sea ice: Ice that forms from seawater and that covers all or parts of the Arctic Ocean.

buoy: A floating device anchored to the bottom of a body of water. A buoy may mark channels, warn of dangers or carry instruments to measure the environment.

coauthor: One of a group (two or more people) who together had prepared a written work, such as a book, report or research paper. Not all coauthors may have contributed equally.

continent: (in geology) The huge land masses that sit upon tectonic plates. In modern times, there are six established geologic continents: North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia and Antarctica. In 2017, scientists also made the case for yet another: Zealandia.

current: A fluid — such as of water or air — that moves in a recognizable direction.

dynamic: An adjective that signifies something is active, changing or moving. (noun) The change or range of variability seen or measured within something.

glacier: A slow-moving river of ice hundreds or thousands of meters deep. Glaciers are found in mountain valleys and also form parts of ice sheets.

landfast ice: Also known as fast ice, it takes its name from the fact that it is fastened to a shoreline, to the seafloor or to icebergs caught on the ocean floor. Being stuck in place, it cannot drift away. It usually develops in shallow areas and tends to be no thicker than a meter or two (up to 6.6 feet).

peninsula: A parcel of land that is that is attached to the mainland but surrounded by water on three sides.

sea: An ocean (or region that is part of an ocean). Unlike lakes and streams, seawater — or ocean water — is salty.

turbulent: (n. turbulence)  An adjective for the unpredictable fluctuation of a fluid (including air) in which its velocity varies irregularly instead of maintaining a steady or calm flow.

veneer: (n.) A thin layer of some material that covers a surface. (v.) The act of covering a surface with a thin layer of something. Woodworkers often apply a decorative veneer of some attractive wood to cover some relatively unattractive wood species below.

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